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Ген.д-р, к.т.н.,
Евгений Дмитриевич Сорокодум


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Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) with flapping wings





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Global transport crises

The present land and air transport system includes a big number of vehicles and an expensive road and airdrome network. Meanwhile all this transport has access to limited number of world places. Capability of transfer operations and delivering is also limited. The present land and air transport is expensive and has a low flexibility and economical characteristics.

Global transport crises: causes

More than 100 years all developments in transport sphere are based on traditional types: car, airplane, helicopter, cushion craft, airship. It costs a lot of time and money to improve these vehicles. But we ignore a fact, that the present vehicles have worked up its improving capability and we have to find a new technique to solve the transport problems.

The flying vehicles could be economical and flexible like birds and insects. It could be also more economical than land transport, if we calculate a road cost and road maintenance costs. It happens because the modern scientists doesn’t possess real knowledge about oscillative aerodynamics., which is base for birds and flying insects. All attempts to develop the flying vehicles with oscillative wings have as result the uneconomical, inflexible and complicated constructed vehicles.

This fiasco, which started 100 years ago and lasts until today, is caused by following fact: all flying vehicles are based on steady-state aerodynamics without developing one oscillative system. It is necessary to use the principles of nonlinear aerodynamics, which is nowadays in the primary phase of its development. Many aerodynamicist also think, that this kind of aerodynamics didn’t exist at all.

In this connection could be made a new types of flying vehicles, which could be inexpensive and economical made, without airdromes (vertical take-off) and which could replace not only modern aviation but also land transport.


Requirement of new types of vehicles

1. Vertical take off, hovering, six degrees of airfield maneuver.
2. No airdrome, roads.
3. Highly economical. Dependence between weight of vehicle and motor power is higher than by present flying vehicles and land transport.
4. Simple constructed and safe.
5. Low cost and exploitation costs.
6. Environmentally friendly.
The development of new vehicles, which conform to this requirements, could allow us to solve global transport crisis and reduced the transport costs.

Transport problems: solutions

Utilizing of non-linear oscillative system can open up the new possibilities [3, 6, 12 ]. This was an evolution way of flying and swimming animals, who approach nowadays a flexible movement art opposed to modern aircraft.


Ways of solutions:


1. Getting of extensive efficient mover disk area.
Using of thrust augmentation by reduction of pressure head in aerodynamic disk area – this a well-known technique by mover experts. But its impossible to use it to the full extent, because you need an extensive propeller disc area, which needs a wind-stick of a big diameter. It will cause a heavy weight, durability problems, high fore drag, necessity of reduction of propeller screw and increasing of the mover weight.
Vibrating wing as a mover can easy solve this problem. It can be placed along the leading or trailing edge of a fixed wing. It will assure a considerable disk area (the disk area is ten times greater than area of the traditional propeller), higher drawing bar and efficiency.

2. Efficiency increasing of propeller disk area.
Oscillating wing as a mover hasn’t such disadvantages as propeller has: absence of a drawing bar in propeller area near axis, inductive aerodynamic reactance on the ends of blades, harmful air movement to the ends of blades because of centrifugal forces.

3. Increasing of efficient mover disc area (KNOW HOW).

There are modes of nonlinear hydrodynamic wing oscillation, which efficient disc area is much more than by steady-state mode of oscillating. Because of the effect drawing bar could be made higher.


4. Increasing of ascentional force as result of high angle of attack by vortex separation (KNOW HOW).

Ascentional force on the oscillating wing as the mover is a force projection on vertical direction. Building of flow-around blow-out by the wing oscillating and reduced lift coefficient as result will take a place by high angle of attack. According to it lift coefficients will be much higher than by propeller.

5. Reduction of air pressure (KNOW HOW)

6. On the wing as a mover it is easy to change an optimal modus by different holding speeds (KNOW HOW).
The propeller has nonoptimal angle of attack by different holding speeds. Even the propellers with controllable pitch of blades can solve this problem only in some degree. It is also easy to determine in remotely way the optimal attack angles and oscillate principle, what will cause the higher drawing bar and efficiency.

7. Oscillating wing as a mover will have a function of mover and vehicle horn at the one time. (KNOW HOW).
In our offering we use the oscillating wings as vehicle horns. Due to it we will get a positive effect:
- vehicle control will successfully made by low speed, among others by vertical take-off and hovering.

8. Increasing of a lift power as a result of direction changing of medium thrust vector (KNOW HOW).

9. Increasing of a lift power as a result of circulation increasing by replacement middle position wing flap upward. (KNOW HOW). 10. Slight aircraft trail (KNOW HOW).
Slight Aircraft trail of vehicle.

11. Simplification of drive connection (KNOW HOW).
Because of using of hydraulic drill for wing slat oscillations the energy transmission system from engine to power cylinder of oscillating wings will be simpler.
We don’t need back-geared motor, drive shafts etc.

12. Simplicity and low price by the side of propellers (KNOW HOW).
It is caused by a simply made engines wing (symmetrical profile with the same chord along the whole span).

13. Improving of controllability, especially by low speeds and 0-speeds.
It caused by oscillating engine and wave flow over a wing (KNOW HOW).
14. Atmospheric energy extraction (KNOW HOW).
15. Controlling systems of engine complex based on oscillating principle.

Our production:

We can develop and produce the first models of flying vehicles of different purposes. There are no ready-made models. We have a wide theoretical, experimental and practical experience of development and production of working models –vehicles based on oscillations.

We can make research and developmental work on creation of the first samples of new highly effective technics (on the basis of our theoretical and experimental researches). We search for investors and partners for creation of the first samples of this new technics.

1. Development and production of the first models of micro- and mini flying vehicles, which made its lift craft because of oscillations.

2. Development and production of the first models of flying vehicles with vertical take-off and hovering, which made its lift craft because of oscillations.

3. Development and production of the first model of airship, which make a lift power and reduce an aerodynamic drag due to oscillations.

4. Development and production of the first models of cushion craft, which make an aerostatic and additional aerodynamic lift power because of oscillating skirt.

5. Analysis and development of alternative flying vehicles, which create a force by energy gradient.

Research and development work according to your order:

1. Map drafting of aerodynamic characteristics of oscillating wing by quasi-stationary oscillation mode.

2. Participation in your projects for reducing of aerodynamic drag of your vehicles by creation of wave flow-around.

3. Map drafting of aerodynamic characteristics of oscillating wing by nonlinear oscillation mode. 4. Map drafting of aerodynamic characteristics of a hull wave flowing (body, wing etc.) by quasi-stationary oscillation flowing mode.

5. Map drafting of aerodynamic characteristics of a hull wave flowing (body, wing etc.) by nonlinear flowing mode.

6. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of oscillating wing for flying vehicles.

7. Design engineering of oscillating wing for flying vehicles.

8. Design engineering of transmission elements and linkages for kinematical, dynamical and energy characteristics between engine and aerodynamic loading of the wing.

9. Development and production of actuation system for wing oscillating.

10. Development and production of controlling system of flying vehicles with oscillating wings.

11. Development and production of adaptational and optimal controlling system for flying vehicles with oscillating wings.

12. Techniques and programs of experimental investigations.

13. Analytical review of scientific publications in the field of oscillating aerodynamic.

14. Analytical review of constructions of flying vehicles with oscillating wings.

15. Analytical review of patents (flying vehicles with oscillating wings).


key words: ornithopter; orthopter, vibrocraft,enthopter,micro and mini flying machine,vertical take-off machine, airship, balloon , cushioncraft, waving wing, oscillating wing, Jukovsky-Knoller- Betz effect, Knoller-Betz effect, Katzmauer effect, reduction of aerodynamic drag, Gray paradox,positive aerodynamic interference.









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Опубликовано на: 2004-08-04 (12889 Прочтено)

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