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Ген.д-р, к.т.н.,
Евгений Дмитриевич Сорокодум


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Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) with flapping wings

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Nowadays many companies are trying to develop flying vehicles with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) of the following type:

1. Helicopters


1. The best helicopters of the world have lift at most 4-6 kg/h.p. in hovering in place mode. This is a very low value.
2. It follows that helicopters are expensive and transportation cost is high.
3. Complicated and unreliable construction. At engine cut-off uncontrolled rotation of a helicopter about vertical axis begins.
4. Unstable when flying near ground.
5. Large size because of the tail rotor.
6. Heavy vibration.
Helicopters are produced and used for transportation upon a small scale and are not in use for mass transit because they are expensive and because of other disadvantages.

2. Airplanes with Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL)


1. Extremely high price, considerable fuel consumption and little payload these planes can lift.
2. Complicated and unreliable construction.
3. Poor control qualities at vertical take-off.
4. Is absolutely inapplicable as a mass transport

3. Airships

Airship of Festo


1. Freight transportation compared to land transportation can be four times cheaper.
2. Large size, complicated wharf devices, low speed, poor maneuvering ability, harmful effect of side wind and other (see the web page http://www.vortexosc.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=79 )
3. Typical flying vehicles can not serve as VTOL mass transport.
4. If to develop flying vehicles of a wing type with a thrust of oscillative type using flow-around for annihilation of aerodynamic drag then such flying vehicles can serve as VTOL mass transport (see our webpage : http://www.vortexosc.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid )

4. Hovercrafts

Characteristics of hovercrafts:

1. Unit lift attains 15 kg/h.p. It is much more than VTOL helicopters and planes have.
2. Have complex construction. Engine-thruster complex for air flooding and developing thrust take much space on the vehicle.
3. Poor flotation ability, considerable dusting, low control characteristics, especially on low speeds.
4. Existing hovercraft can not serve as a VTOL mass transport.
5. If to develop hovercraft vehicle with a thruster of oscillative type and use oscillating skirt to develop aerostatic and aerodynamic lift then such vehicle can serve as a VTOL mass transport (see our webpage http://www.vortexosc.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpageπ)

5. Flying platforms

Vehicles with vertical rise and hovering: http://www.solotrek.

Flying platforms by DM AeroSafe: http://dmaerosafe.freeservers.


1. Very big cost, the big consumption and a small real weight
2. A difficult and unreliable design.
3. Are used screw and jet thrusters.
4. Bad controllability.
5. Existing flying platforms are not suitable as mass transport with vertical take-off and landing.

6. Flying disk

It’s known nowadays that in 30s-40s Germany was intensively developing disc-shaped flying vehicles with unconventional way of lift power creation. Circular form in plan gives two more advantages. First – stable flight at ANY attack angle even up to 90 degrees; that excepts the spin even at lowest speed. This advantage of the scheme is well known.

On December, 12 in 1959 on the territory of the “Avro Canada” Plant in Melton “Avrocar” accomplished first air taxiing; on May, 17 in 1961 forward flights began.


EKIP vehicle

To reduce aerodynamical drag boundary layer control system is applied. This layer in form of complex of tandem transverse vortexes is soaked into the hull and that guarantees vehicle flow without separation. Due to that vehicle moves in laminar aerodynamical flow with smaller drag. The system allows to provide low aerodynamical drag (in 6-8% of secondary thrust) at low energy consumption and vehicle stability at attack angular range up to 40 degrees at cruise and take-off and landing flying mode. The vehicle is invented in USSR by L.N. Schukin at the beginning of 80s. It has several modified arrangements depending on its application. EKIP can fly at height from 3 to 10 000 meters with speed from 120 to 700 km/h.


1. For many decades no one managed to create a reliable, economic, really flying vehicle.

2. It is reasonable to develop such vehicle further (application of umbrella-shaped model).

7. Umbrellaplane

J.L. Naudin invented a flying model in a form of umbrella. Lift power is created due to screw that pushes air down. Thrown air on its way down flows around umbrella-shaped surface on which due to Coanda effect additional lift is created.


1. Compared to ordinary flying platforms flying umbrella has additional lift.
2. It is reasonable to develop such vehicle further (application of umbrella-shaped model).

8. Ornithopters

1. For a long period of time there have been made attempts to develop a really flying ornithopter. But such vehicle is not invented yet. The main reason is that engineers and researches don’t know about the effects of nonlinear oscillative aerodynamics and don’t consider vehicle engine-thruster complex as a whole mechanical system.
2. Ornitopter with vertical take-off and landing it is not created yet.

V. Tatarinov developed a model which could fly up vertically due to oscillation of umbrella-shaped body. An attempt to develop vehicle of a big size failed.

Swedish inventor Valin developed Orthopter on which oscillated wings with shutters (moving up-opened, moving down-closed).
1. Orthopters with their principle at once solve VTOL and hovering problems.
2. This flying vehicle is undeservingly forgotten nowadays.
3. Using effects of nonlinear oscillative aerodynamics and construction principles of vehicle as a whole engine-thruster complex it’s possible to develop highly economical and maneuverable flying vehicle.

9. Flying carpets (the magic carpet)

East and in some Russian fairy tales carpets in the size about 3 on 4 metres served in many for transportation of people and cargoes by air. The French and American physicists have designed "carpet-plane": thin sheet from an easy material which can fly by air in the set direction at the expense own oscillations. At first physicists under the direction of Lakshminarajanana Mahadevana (Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan) from the Harvard University in Cambridge (USA, the State of Massachusetts) have found out the thin vibrating sheet does not sink in a liquid. The further researches have shown: the same sheet can keep and in air. It is necessary only to force to shiver it in appropriate way. The Carpet-plane, as a matter of fact, is ready - sit down and fly. But while is low.

The fantastic plot is almost true from the scientific point of view: the carpet flies towards the raised edge.

Practical levitation

1. The carpet surface vibrates.
2. Pressure over a carpet goes down (-P).
3. Under a carpet the elevated pressure (+P) is created.
4. At the expense of a difference of pressure there is a carrying power. Carpets, however, will face a number of serious restrictions. Theoretically they can be as much as great, but practically for lifting of a carpet some the considerable size is required exclusively strong engine. That the carpet in length of ten centimeters and of 0,1 millimeters remained thickness in air, it should vibrate with frequency about ten hertz and amplitude of oscillations about 0,25 millimeters (that is waves amplitude in two and half time more thickness of carpet should run on it ten times per second).


1. The received sizes of elevating and pulling forces yet do not represent practical interest.
2. 2. These phenomena still have been opened earlier at research acoustic currents formed at wave distribution on a surface.
3. 3. Use of waves on surface of thin sheets or films will yield the big practical results if to pass to the serious scientific approach at the decision of this problem (use of nonlinear oscillatory aerodynamics, working out of these devices on a basis move-moving complex, use of automatic adaptive control systems, etc.). Sorokodum E.D.'s such work already takes some tens years.

10. Acoustic levitation

Flying ants: ultrasound can keep a small insect aloft.
Wenjun Xie, Scientists at Northwestern Polytechnic University in Xian

Professor Ulf Leonhardt and Dr Thomas Philbin, from the University of St Andrews in Scotland, have worked out a way of reversing this pheneomenon, known as the Casimir force, so that it repels instead of attracts.


1. Effect of getting pressure force of sound (acoustic radiation pressure) was known long time ago.
2. These authors don’t make pre-project evaluation of expected thrust from power value. According to general theory of power development it follows that thrust value is equal to power supplied to the trail and divided by energy transfer speed (of any kind) from generator to the trail (see my work: Sorokodoum E. On general nature of forces // New Energy Technologies. Issue # 1(4), January-February 2002, p.317-323.(pdf). Speed of sound thought it is far less than light speed but still high (340 m/s in the air). It follows that sound doesn’t produce gross thrust force taken from power unit of acoustic generator.
3. Acoustic thrusters are unrealizable and uneconomical. The situation can be changed if to reduce acoustic energy transfer speed along the flying vehicles line of motion (to the opposite from the vehicle direction) to several tens of meters per second.

11. Light rockets

The development of light rockets similar to development of firm Lightcraft Technologies Inc. (LTI), do not bring success. And reception in last experiences of appreciable forces in these vehicles, is connected with the use of energy of light (laser) for evaporation of ice or plastic and creation due to it a jet. Only due to reaction of a jet pair forces which can lift the vehicle during short time for some tens meters also have been received.
1. Abroad, especially in the USA, are made attempts to create flying vehicles getting thrust due to light pressure (at light emission by emitter on the vehicle or under light reflection from the emitter on the earth).
2. Received values of lift are too small at considerable energy consumption
3. Trying to get any substantial power inventors made a trick: light ray energy conversion into heat energy and using it for evaporation of ice (USA) or hard material into vapor (Japan). Then vapor jets are directed one way and they get lift. But this is a common rocket thruster already. There is no need to do things like that because we can use energy for evaporation of material at once omitting intermediate conversion into light energy. These works are exotic but not serious scientific and design works.
4. These authors don’t make pre-project evaluation of expected thrust from power value. According to general theory of power development it follows that thrust value is equal to power supplied to the trail and divided by energy transfer speed (of any kind) from generator to the trail (see my work: Sorokodoum E. On general nature of forces // New Energy Technologies. Issue # 1(4), January-February 2002, p.317-323.(pdf). Light speed is great. It follows that light can not create considerable thrust force from the power unit of light emitter.
5. Light thruster is absolutely unrealizable and uneconomical at Earth conditions. The situation can be changed if to reduce light energy transfer speed along the flying vehicle line of motion (to the opposite from the vehicle direction) to several tens of meters per second.

12 Electroplanes

Flying electro plane by Tim Ventura http://www.americanantigravity.com/index.s
Electric flying ships characteristics:
1. Low relative thrust (lift value from power unit)
2. Present day results are far from practical application for transport.

13. UFO

Characteristic of UFO:

1. Flying principles, energy and other characteristics of UFO are not known.

14. Alternative flying vehicles.

In various laboratories works on creation of a new type thruster for flying vehicles are in progress. Among them is thrust development without mass reject.

Breakthrough Propulsion Physics NASA sponsored Glenn's BPP Project over 1996-2002, which addressed 8 different research approaches, produced 16 peer-reviewed journal articles and award-winning website (Warp-When), all for a total investment of less than $1.6M. During this time, the BPP Project also co-ordinate with related research funded at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. With the implementation of the 2003 Federal Budget (p.325), all advanced propulsion research was deferred, including these research efforts.


1. The area of search of creation of draught is in the new ways real and actual.
2. It is required to develop for the qualified search of new ways of creation of draught first of all the general theory of physics of creation of force.

15. Birds and insects.


1. A mechanism of lift creation by birds and insects has been practiced for thousands of years. That’s why we may suppose that locomotive mechanism of flying animals has optimal characteristics of energy output and materials consumption for wings and muscles.
2. There flying animals that have specific thrust more than 100 кг/л.с (kg/h.p.)!
3. Unfortunately, mechanism of animals’ flight remains underexplored. Unfortunately, huge financial and human resources are directed on research works of traditional mechanism of thrust and lift force creation basing on stationary aerodynamics.
4. Existence of nonlinear oscillative effects is actually disregarded by researches and companies that may allow designing supereconomy flying vehicle.
5. Supereconomy VTOL flying vehicle can be designed in case of application of nonlinear oscillative aerodynamical effects and principles of engine-thruster complex construction which flying animals have.

16. Conclusion

A principal cause is that not possible to create the economic vehicle with vertical take-off and landing on a place till now, use of classical stationary aeromechanics.
1. There are no types of VTOL vehicles among existing inventions that would meet the quality requirements mentioned in part 1. Actuality.
2. Such vehicle can be developed if using nonlinear oscillative aerodynamical effects and principles of engine-thruster complex construction as a whole oscillative system.
3. Such vehicles can have many functional modified arrangements. Today they are:
- Flying vehicles with vertical take-off and landing with a thruster of oscillative type
- Hovercrafts vehicle with oscillating skirt (see our webpage: http://www.vortexosc.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpageπ )
- Airship of a wing type with a thruster of oscillative type (see our webpage: http://www.vortexosc.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid )
4. When fulfilling the order for aviation technology it became common that a customer confides not to the author that researches and knows a lot about high technologies but to him who demonstrates the models of flying vehicles (that can not fly good but he promises to get better result in future). As the result, every year in the world hundreds of model that can and can not fly are designed and don’t have better characteristics and results.
The main reason that we still can not develop economical flying vehicle with vertical take-off and landing is in using standard stationary aeromechanics.

Our results

1. During several decades we have experimentally got the theoretical results of an oscillating engine-mover complex. see http://www.vortexosc.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=10

2. We experimentally got based on oscillating wing by hover mode the values more than 150 kG/HP.

Referring to the real flying vehicle factoring in engine and transmitting elements power losses we will get a value of 60 kG/HP.

It’s many times better than values of hovering helicopter.

Flying vehicles with vertical take-off and oscillating mover will have:

1. Lower engine power because of lift power, which is several time less than before.
2. Lower weight of engine, transmitting elements, fuel flow system, fuel.
3. Will be smaller by the same commercial freight.
4. Lower price of vehicle.
5. Lower freight transportation costs.
6. Transportation safety, higher controllability and flexibility.
7. Flexibility of requirements to position of power-plants and controlling systems on the board.
8. External view of the flying vehicle with oscillating engine is more attractive than by propeller vehicles.
9. Less vehicle dimensions by the same net load.
10. High maneuverability: vertical take-off, hovering, lowering, six degrees of freedom by maneuver
11. Better controllability by low speeds.
12. Safety (the contact with the wing is safely, no need of safety barrier)

We can make research and developmental work on creation of the first samples of new highly effective technics (on the basis of our theoretical and experimental researches). We search for investors and partners for creation of the first samples of this new technics.

We look for investor and fellow partner for line production of extra economical and maneuvering vertical take-off flying vehicles with oscillating mover.

1. Flying vehicle with flight weight of 250 kG (for one person).

2. Flying vehicle with flight weight of 1000 kG (fright and passenger traffic)

3. Flying vehicle with flight weight of 1000 kG (radio-controlled, for field irrigation

4. Flying vehicle with flight weight of 5000 kG (fright and passenger traffic).

5. Flying vehicle with flight weight of 5000 kG (radio-controlled, for fire fighting)

Click to download the presentation:

 A vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicles with oscillating wings

Unmanned aerial vehicles “flying wing” with oscillating propulsor

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