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Crisis of a science, engineering and human opportunities

Crisis of a science

Crisis of a science, engineering and human opportunities.

Studies of how animals fly and swim, creation of flying and swimming devices with oscillating working organs, studies of unusual vortex have a history of already more than 100 years. Despite of a great number of publications this field has still been studied a little. Mechanics of flight and swimming, physics of tornado and vortex tube, dynamics and energy of spiral and other vortex structures remain don't understanded. There are several reasons for current situation in this area of human knowledge:

-crisis in scientific studies (theory foundations, methods of research);

-crisis in technology politics (absence of strategy for development of new devices);

-crisis in organizational structures and human resources while developing objects extremely complicated in scientific and engineering sense.

These features of task implementation usually stay unnoticed or ignored by many scientists, designers, businessmen and managers. It seems to me that ignoring the existence of the crises itself leads to failure and waste of time, human, financial and material resources. Contemporary level of carrying out scientific and organizational studies and developing a design in this area is not sufficient for successful results (contemporary level is nothing but an unprofessional approach). This is why questions raised here have to be seriously considered and prompt the human society to review its scientific, technical and organizational approach to problems solution in this area. The question is sharp: either we have to review the approach or hundreds of scientists from generation to generation will follow the same pass not finding real scientific explanations and designer solutions which will be adequate to specifics of разрабатываемых products.

Reasons for the above mentioned crises will be reviewed below.

Crisis of science

It has appeared in that area of scientific knowledge which needs fundamental research in the following directions:



-general problems connected with notions of energy and force;

-systems, including oscillation systems;


-methods of research;

-theory of design of devices using oscillations, waves and vortex to induce force and utilize energy from the environment (sources of energy, drives, driving and matching elements, systems of control, working organs).

Let's analysis shortly the status of scientific studies in each of these areas from the point of their use in studies of aerohydrodynamics of flight and swimming of animals, unusual oscillations, vortex and waves and their technical analogies.

For studies of oscillations in liquids and air equations of Navie-Stokes or Euler are used . For the small oscillations they give results that agree with experiment (linearized type of body oscillation, including that of the wing and in acoustics) and for quasistationary oscillations of bodies (wings). However these equations having limited opportunities do not give an answer for a raising number of tasks:

-do not give a direct solution to definition of turbulence, hydrodynamic instability (those solutions that are widely used are derived with additional artificial equations and methods);

-do not give a clear answer to development mechanism of resistance crisis at critical region of Reynolds numbers;

-do not give solutions (agreeable with what is being observed during experiment) for streams when amplitudes of oscillations are changed on a large scale, including those comparable with characteristic size of body;

-do not give any quality solutions to describe dynamics of flight and swimming of animals that will agree with dynamic and energy characteristics of real animals, and also their technical prototypes;

-do not explain principles of economical flight and swimming of animals;

-till today the paradox of Grey remains unsolved (dolphins when they swim spend energy several times less than it would be needed for the same technical object);

-do not allow to solve a problem of tornado;

-do not give solutions to non-stationary (non-linear) oscillation mode;

-solutions for physics of vortex tube have contradictions with empirical data; -there are a lot of contradictions in vortex motion.

Thus Navier-Stokes equations become not useful for solution of number of tasks connected with oscillation, wave and vortex motions, and for instability and energy exchange problems. Main reasons that make Navier-Stokes equations useless consist of the following:

-rotational motion of particles is not taken into account;

-energy transfer is not taken into account;

-viscosity is not fully reflected;

-connection between density and other physical variables has a simplified character.

Researchers know little that flight and swimming of animals takes place in a non-linear (non-stationary) oscillations mode. Namely this oscillation mode originates unusual efficiency feature of locomotion organ of animals and enable high efficiency of developing technical devices working in this mode.

Thermodynamics, in a part of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (authors have called it only a hypothesis), states that energy transfer can not take place from a cold body to a heated one or that concentration of energy and temperature raise in one of the areas can not take place in a medium with a constant temperature At the same time experiment results speak of a different matter:

-in heat pumps heat transfer from a body with low temperature to a hot one takes place due external energy;

-the toy “drinking berd” works as a heat engine through evaporation of water from its head though the surrounding space has a constant temperature;

-there are devices (Lazarev's ring space and many others ), where motion takes at constant temperature in an ambient medium.

These contradictions speak of imperfection in a 2nd law of Thermodynamics, which can not be used for all types of systems and motions.

Phenomena observed and studied by Nikolai Tesla, Viktor Shauberger and others should be specially mentioned here :

In certain types of vortex motion there was observed a temperature decrease in a jet of liquid (air) and released heat energy transformed into additional kinetic energy of the jet. With certain characteristics of device it appears so that energy input may be less than energy output (in the process, liquid with decreased temperature discharges from the device). Law of energy conservation is not violated. Navie-Stokes equations and thermodynamics can not explain phenomena of transformation of heat energy of the jet when its temperature is decreased into additional kinetic energy of the jet. (experiments by Viktor Shauberger and others). A lot of publications about this phenomena have appeared on the web recently. To our regret in spite of the fact that they are numerous and have references to same authors in the past no serious experiments were carried out to test this phenomena and to reveal analytical patterns describing it. If its existence will be reliably verified then it will open up to humanity great possibilities to create renewable sources of energy, flying and swimming devices of a new type and many other.

Over the last decades a number of studies with reviewed and summarized physical notions of energy and force have appeared again. As of today it may be stated that physical notion of energy and force and their mathematical description apparently is only a particular case of the more general patterns not yet known to humanity. There is a number of publications with attempts to review physics of force development and to find more general physical models for it. Here we have in mind that these problems are closely related to physics of induction of driving force.

Problems raised by scientists can be divided in two:

-general physics of force;

-general theory of induction of driving force.

In its turn driving force may be generated by different means:

-by mass ejection (force impulse originated by changed quantity of motion: reactive propellers, mass ejection by screw, wing, etc.);

-energy radiation (pressure radiation of electromagnetic or acoustic waves, photon rockets);

-by other unusual means.

Physics of propellers generating driving force by mass ejection for a number of practical cases is amply studied but issues of generating propulsion by energy radiation or other way remain exotic. Hence we limit to ourselves horizons of scientific search and prospects of developing new devices. It is also possible that these mechanisms will enable to solve phenomena of flight and swimming of animals, their unusual for today's knowledge efficiency features.

Flying and sailing animals and their technical prototypes are material systems. And oscillating systems. Energy of the source is transferred to the drive (to engine that generates oscillating motion at the output), then through driving and matching elements the motion is transferred to a working organ (wing, fin, feathers, etc). A working organ oscillating in liquid or air inducts driving force. These are simplified features of engine and propeller system of an oscillating type. Without studies of flight and swimming of animals and their technical prototypes based on oscillating system, in principle it will be impossible to understand correctly their work and design highly effective devices. All the more it is surprising that researchers in this area don't know or ignore achievements in contemporary science. If we don't use theory of oscillations to study flight and swimming of animals then it beforehand considerably reduces significance of all previous and today's studies.

Locomotion organ of flying and swimming animals has been adapting in a period of millions of years. Principles of its construction, search of optimal modes in live nature probably differ from how humans can do it. At this aspect live nature acts considerably more effective than humans who study nature by logical thinking (and very rarely by heuristic thinking). Taking this into account it will be expedient to have a detailed study of locomotion organs of animals, as well as principles of for searching of optimal device's structure and its operating modes.

Summing up what has been said about scientific crises in this area, we can make the following conclusions:

-imperfection of Thermodynamics and Navier-Stokes equations, not using to this area general physical approaches to energy and force, ignoring the existence of non-linear (non-stationary) oscillation modes in liquid and not using theory of oscillations for studies of flight and swimming of animals in nature and their technical analogies creates a situation where level of these studies will stay unprofessional;

-implementation of the above mentioned scientific studies to research in our area will not solve all the questions immediately but will allow to begin comprehended studies on a more professional level;

-variety and volume of forthcoming studies is great (there is an element of failure in full understanding of the mater) but it's time to follow a new path

There had never been one united program of studies in this area.

Crisis of engineering

Stationary aerohydrodynamics dominated in ХХ century.

Stationary aerohydrodynamics allowed to create airplanes, helicopters, vessels on underwater wings, devices on air cushion, rockets, ships and submarines, sources of energy, technological devices to increase heat and mass transfer, pumps and many other. Propellers and devices of the ХХ century have considerable power and low commercial freight, have great weight of engines and propellers and low efficiency, pollute the environment.

In leading countries of the world for a long period of time a great number of studies has been done to improve design of airplanes, helicopters, ships, submarines, rockets, sources of energy, technological devices and other equipment. A great number of financial, material and human resources have been attracted to do the studies. Devices have been constantly improving. But despite increased financing effectiveness of studies decreases. And we face now the crises in technology.

Quality change in creating of new technologies may take place if the same happens with scientific knowledge, and as a result of this the strategic concept of new ways of developing of lifting and propulsion force, renewable sources of energy and technological processes will be changed. New scientific knowledge have to enable to create renewable sources of energy using heat energy of a still ambient environment. Successful development of samples of heat pumps and Sterling's on the base of thermoacoustics effects is a bright example of implementing new scientific knowledge.

In 2000-2010 years we will face a new time of non-linear (non-stationary) aerohydrodynamic oscillation processes. Non-linear oscillating processes are the new technologies with new principles of generating driving force, reduction of aerohydrodynamic resistance, utilization of an environmental energy, high technologies in devices of heat and mass exchange. These are flying devices with vertical take-off and ability to hover and having 30-150 kg of lifting force per horse power of engine . These are rockets that need fuel ten times less, and take commercial weight to ten times more.

Crisis in human resources and organization of scientific and designer studies

Transcendental difficulty of studying mechanism of flight and swimming of animals, their technical prototypes, non-linear oscillations in liquid and air, vortex renewable sources of energy impose high requirements to an individual scientist and designer as well as to organizing studies and business in this area.

For studies of non-linear oscillations in mechanics, biomechanics, aerohydromechanics and thermodynamics it is necessary to have encyclopedia knowledge in different areas of sciences, have a data base of not less than several thousands of publications, know methods and instruments for experimental research and many other.. Have also a big bank of patents and design of flying and swimming devices with oscillating working organs. Knowledge of classical parts of science is also needed. Accumulation of this knowledge is possible only at unordinary efforts during many years of studies in this area.. And yet it is not enough. Results obtained by humanity by last 150 years show that our knowledge weakly reflects physical processes taking place at flying and swimming of animals, during oscillations in liquid and air, and created numerous devices are nothing more but exotic toys. We now are facing a critical situation when such large volume of knowledge is needed that considerably exceeds capabilities of one individual. A great number of researchers in this area have been working and work now in the world. But a great number of researchers don't lead to desirable results. Scientists know little about previous studies and research conducted by contemporaries in boundary areas. Studies are repeated constantly; financial, material and human resources are being wasted, and level of studies beforehand meets failure (writing of dissertations can not be the only goal of these studies).

In 1960-1987 a Program of research of flapping wing in water has been launched in USA and USSR . More that 30 organizations have been attracted to this research in USSR. Officials from the government considered this program as a routine task fulfilled with a routine approach. Taking into account what has been said in the section “Crisis of science” and "Crisis of engineering " failure of the Programs in USA and USSR could not be avoided. People that worked for the Program sincerely believed in success and did not suspect that failure of the Program can not be avoided. Bad organization has negatively added to this situation. In USSR research program leaders were actually unprofessional. Besides that they did not take care of organizational matters and did not fulfill their leadership functions. Trying to improve the situation, Doctor Sorokodum on his own initiative started to organize and carry out coordinate meetings (see the pictures).

Participants of Coordinating meeting (leaders of scientific laboratories of USSR participating in the Program dedicated to development of an oscillating propeller, 1979)

Participants of Coordinating meeting (representatives from scientific organizations of USSR, shipbuilding industry, 1983)

But Gorbachev's era have put an end to financing and studies have been stopped.

In USA the Program was probably organized in a better way. But judging by scientific publications and patents, they have made the same organizational and scientific mistakes. Crisis of the state of scientific knowledge in this area and inadequacy of this knowledge to research in this field were also not realized. Therefore Program in USA was doomed for failure. Now in the world and USA a new turn in studies of flight and swimming of animals and their technical prototypes is observed. Tens of micro flying and swimming devices including those with with oscillating wings are being developed by initiative of DARPA (The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency USA) and other governmental organizations. But again it is not understood that conducting of scientific and designer studies based on classical knowledge and methods will lead to failure of all studies. It is not understood that airplane or helicopter version of micro flying devices does not have prospects because of its low efficiency and manoeuvrability. Devices with flapping wings, that use linear or quasistationary oscillation modes will not be efficient and therefore have no prospects for a wast market . Besides that, developed in USA and Canada micro flying devices with flapping wings can not take off and land vertically and hover. Taking into account what has been said in sections "Crisis of science", "Crisis of engineering" and in this section, today's programs in USA are also doomed for failure. Neither big financing nor using of super modern equipment can improve the situation. A small laboratory with considerably less financial support than in USA. can successfully solve problems of developing micro flying and swimming devices if it will operate on the basis of what has been said above. (I have a right to say that because I have been working in this area for more than 30 years, have seen development of hundreds of scientists and laboratories, know the results of 7000 research papers and 1000 patents, see the development of today's studies by internet).

Taking into account everything that has been said, it is necessary has created International Program on the subject with attraction of really leading scientists in this area, creation of data base of scientific and designer studies, development of basis of flying and swimming devices of an oscillating type and other organizational decisions when conducting studies in this area.

Conclusions and recommendations

Analysis of scientific studies has shown that the following concepts should be taken as a guide:

1. Force of propulsion is a result of gradient of energy in space and all known physical theories (sea propellers, screw and turbojet propellers, jet propellers, different kinds of pumps, devices for technological mixing and others) are a particular case of this principle. Intellectual efforts of designers developing propellers are limited by existing theories reflecting only a particular area of physics of propellers. Based on the general concept of force development in order to make propellers several times more efficient than existing ones it is necessary to have an effective aerodynamic cross-section of the propeller as big as possible. Even bigger than the cross-section of the device itself. All flying and swimming animals have an effective area of propeller bigger than a midship section of animal's body. Propeller with oscillating working organ would be more suitable for these purposes because its shape and motion trajectory are not limited by geometry of circle, propeller can work outside the body frame of the device and can have a large sweep effective area.

2. Force of propulsion may be generated by energy transfer in space of any physical nature (due to and at availability of gradient of energy). Energy transfer by mass ejection, as it happens in any known propeller or in rocket is a particular case of propulsion generating. Energy can be transferred by other means for example with the help of wave (photon rockets). Using the more general concepts of mechanism of propulsion than existing ones it will be possible to create propellers, including rocket, many times more efficient.

3. When bodies oscillate in liquid or air there are at least three physical areas of oscillation: linear, non-linear (non-stationary) and quasistationary. Linear and quasistationary areas of oscillation physically exist, calculations and experiments agree with each other. Implementation of physics of linear or quasistationary oscillations enables to create devices, but these devices will have energy efficiency not higher than existing traditional propellers and therefore have no prospects for good marketing. Non-linear (non-stationary) oscillation mode should be used. But existence of this area remains unnoticed. Besides that this area is not understanded, and studies of it require more efforts (theoretical, experimental and designer studies) than it was needed for classical aerodynamics and hydrodynamics.

4. Studies to solve efficient motion of sea animals (an attempt to solve paradox of Grey) have been conducted in USA and USSR for 15 years A clue has not been found.. Problem of transportation in space should be solved not by creating powerful propellers but by creating structure of streams around the device's body frame providing minimum of aerohydrodynamic resistance or even that the body frame itself could become a propeller. The main task of the propeller is not propulsion generation but creation of necessary structure of streams around the body frame of the device. One of the possible types could be creation of the wave flow around the body frame and adequate drag reduction or even creation of driving force on the body frame Wave flow can be generated if the oncoming flow will be disturbed with oscillations.

5. Vortex-oscillation technologies can give advantages in implementation of special control systems and systems of optimal adaptive control .

6. Existing equations in aerohydrodynamics, thermodynamics and physical models do not fully consider energy exchange in medium and between medium and body. Such structure of streams can be created (especially jet, vortex, wave or oscillating), where it is possible to receive energy transfer to our structure of streams from the ambient medium (even still ambient medium). Existing tornados are an example of this mechanism. In a number of cases this transfer takes place but it has a small value or is not discovered by experimenters because they don't suspect that this phenomena exist)

7. Trancendental difficulty of conducting studies in this area makes the question sharp: either an international program of studies based non-linear (non-stationary) oscillations mode, oscillation system with attraction of new aero-hydrodynamic and thermodynamic phenomena is launched or the programs again will come to a failure.

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Опубликовано на: 2005-09-25 (3628 Прочтено)

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