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Евгений Дмитриевич Сорокодум


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Airships





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State-of-the-Art

Transport problems are becoming ever more urgent in the world.
Such transport vehicles as airships can contribute considerably into the solution of individual, local and global problems.
Nevertheless, so far any attempts to develop any specific airships models that can attract many clients, have failed. Why is it so? The reason is that, in spite of a hundred years of research, they have not been able to develop a really low-cost, manoeuvrable and easy-to-operate transport airship.
In this connection, many companies are again trying to develop airships that could be highly competitive in the market and be sold in large quantities. They make sensational declarations and develop various programs and projects. All this activities will demand impressive financial and time resources and, in our opinion, will yield no results. It is explained by the fact that all these projects do not implicate any radical improvement of airships characteristics: smaller size, lower production and transportation costs and simpler operation. Still, these activities will certainly go on, as there are no other transport means for transporting bulk cargo or for the solution of other specific transport problems.
So, tens of companies will produce few airship that will not settle any large-scale transport problems. This situation will lead to another business failure for these companies which will be aggravated and speeded up by today’s financial crisis.
It is high time for companies, investors and developers of both state and private programs to understand that the only solution of transport problems is the development of airships of totally new generation lacking serious drawbacks of previous projects. We certainly should not follow old ineffective schemes.
For the last decades, airships are using low-cost and safe helium, advanced materials for shell and frame, modern navigation aids and controls and new improved engines. Still there are no radical improvement of airships characteristics. Why is it so? The matter is that accent is made on the development of various versions of frames and external configurations of airships. All these works are based on classical stationary aerodynamics. It is urgent to understand that the use of stationary aerodynamics considerably impedes the development of airships with totally new fantastic characteristics. That is why there is little hope that in the nearest future aerodynamic characteristics of airships (notably, aerodynamic drag reduction), will be improved, as well as their economical, manoeuvring and other characteristics. It is necessary to apply oscillation aerodynamics in the development of airships. It can radically reduce aerodynamic drag and to develop highly effective thrusters of a new type, etc. In its turn, it will considerably reduce engines capacity, fuel weight and consumption. Such airships will be low-cost, fuel-efficient and manoeuvrable. This new generation of airships can be used for the solution of a wide range of transport problems and hundreds of thousands of such aircraft can be produced.

Why are these possibilities so far not used? There are several reasons for that:

1. Oscillation aerodynamics is a rather new science. Its initial research results are known only to narrowly focused specialists. Most experts in aerodynamics, as a rule, are quite ignorant of it and for this reason simply ignore this branch of knowledge. They are traditionally accustomed to develop airships on the basis of traditional stationary aerodynamics. And nobody will blame and dismiss them for that. For the last hundred years there have not been any impressive improvement of airships characteristics, but no individual aerodynamic expert will be responsible for wasting tens and hundreds of millions of dollars.

2. A airship based on oscillation aerodynamics, as well as oscillation thrusters are complicated oscillation systems. Aircraft engineering centers, especially those specializing in airship construction, are not prepared for the development of airships as oscillation systems. It should be mentioned that it is not the airship frame that will be oscillating. A special propulsion complex will be operating in an oscillating mode, and the frame flow-around will have extremely low oscillation components (modern planes, helicopters and airships are characterized by much more intensive oscillation components related to frame flow-around; these oscillations are chaotic and are considered harmful).

3. Traditional conservatism

4. Most companies for many years prefer to spend lot of money on insignificant improvements, but are not willing to risk and undertake research to develop a brand new airship with oscillating thrusters.

As a result, existing airships are not highly profitable transport means and their production and sales are not too large-scale.

Our team has knowledge and exclusive experience in the field of oscillation aerodynamics and the development of a propulsion complex of an oscillation type.

We can develop and produce first models of airships (small-size) of a new type with extremely low aerodynamic drag that will be highly manoeuvrable and fuel-saving.

In accordance with a Customer’s order, we can develop advanced airships with any load-lifting capacity and purpose.

Advanced airships we are offering will be unrivalled and will be bought even in severe economic crises. In fact, our airships are invulnerable to any crisis.

Below we will give detailed analysis of these problems.


Today and tomorrow of airships. Myths and reality.


Airships' advantages

1. Airships do no spend energy on lift generation, using gas aerostatic lift force.
2. Low transport cost, especially of bulky and massive cargo.
3. They can hover in place. 4. The development of extra-heavy load lifting planes and helicopters is impeded by strength characteristics of construction materials. There are no such limitations for airships and the development of aircraft with 1 000 t working load is quite feasible.
5. Long nonstop range. .
6. Higher reliability and safety in comparison to planes and helicopters.
7. Airships do not need air-strips (but mooring masts are necessary). Moreover, they do not need to land at all and can simply hover over the ground (however, it is possible only in still air conditions).

Airships with flapping wings.

Airships with flying wings as thrusters have the longest history. Their production has now been expanded. Still, only few such airships are produced. Moreover, they are small-sized and so far have been considered rather exotic. In fact, their flight characteristics are far from being perfect. These small-sized airships have been before and are now a sort of funny toys. In their production, oscillation aerodynamics principles have not been taken into account and they have never been developed as a single oscillation system. That is why they will never bring forth a breakthrough in airships engineering.
Still W.Schmidt believed that these funny toys of small-sized airships are first signs of a revolution in airships engineering. It seems that nowadays, experts of such companies as Festo AG & Co. KG, EvoLogics GmbH, Prospective Concepts AG, as well as Mr. Uwe Werner share this point of view.


French mechanic Jean Pierre Blanshar has begun with realization of idea flapping flight. In 1781 it has constructed the device which wings were set in motion effort of hands and legs.


According to experiences Degen on resistance of friction of all system 9 kgs so draft of a counterbalance was equal only 39 kgs, that is exactly half of weight of the device were required. After long experiences it managed to rise under such circumstances with the device on height of 16 meters the help of 25 impacts by wings within 30 seconds. If these data are not exaggerated, the result turns out amazing. Even if to assume, that Degen could develop for short time capacity in ? a horsepower, from its experiences follows, that already one horsepower would be enough for free rise of the person.
To have an opportunity to make more free flights, Degen has decided to replace the counterbalance тягою the small cylinder filled by hydrogen. By means of such "facilitated" device it also has made rise on air at presence of enormous crowd on November, 12th, 1808.


In 1897 the Kharkov doctor Danilevsky has made a balloon with flapping wings


Miturich P.V. has suggested to create motive power on a airship by means of wave oscillations of all environment like movement of a body of a fish


The working model of a airship with flapping thruster has been created by the professor of W. Schmidt (1973-1975).



The project of the airship of Schmidt



Bilder unseres Blimp zum Innovationstag 31.08.2004 in Berlin : Zu beachten ist der vorn und hinten angebrachte Wellpropellorantrieb, mit welchem das unbemannte Luftschiff angetrieben und gelenkt wird. Die Steuerung erfolgt uber ein GPS-Modul, mit welchem eine programmierte Strecke in einer definierten Hohe abgefahren und durch die unten angeordneten Messgerate aufgenommen werden kann.
Simulation.htm


Look vodeo "The Individual Airship - France" на YOU TUBE



One of Mike Dodd’s Ornithopter blimps.
The model is 7 1/2 feet long and weighs 15 ounces without helium.

Development of firm Festo AG and Co airships with thruster of oscillatory type



AirJelly's environment is the air. Unlike AquaJelly, the remote-controlled jellyfish AirJelly does not swim through water, but instead glides instead through a sea of air thanks to its central electric drive unit and an intelligent, adaptive mechanism. It is able to do so because it consists of a helium-filled ballonett.
The biggest draws at Festo’s Hannover Fair exhibits have been biologically inspired robotic creatures that show off cutting-edge automation technologies. Turning once again to nature for inspiration, the company’s engineers this year came up with robotic jellyfish that either swim or fly.
They may look whimsical, but the waterborne AquaJelly and airborne AirJelly make use of mechatronic design practices, control strategies and actuation methods that could have serious engineering implications. According to Markus Fischer, Festo’s head of corporate design, these robots have a degree of autonomy and adaptive behavior that “will be very useful in the factory of the future.”
Both the AquaJelly and AirJelly share a basic construction that consists of a sphere-shaped body with eight electrically driven tentacles for propulsion. Both run off rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and are powered by 3V coreless motors. Given the differing mediums in which they travel, the two robots do have different bodies — a laser-sintered pressure vessel for the AquaJelly and a helium balloon measuring 1.35m across for the AirJelly.
Festo AG & Co. KG

Fin Ray Effect Recent studies on the functional morphology of fins of fishes show a surprising biomechanical effect of the fin rays. The bionic implementations of these constructions led to shape-adaptive wing profiles and flow control devices. The functional principle has been patented and is marketed as "Fin Ray Effect" in a line of products currently being developed. Besides adaptive seat constructions, novel safe and form-locking grips are of particular interest. Creative applications in household technology, automation technology, keyhole surgery, and bionic robotics are in preparation.
EvoLogics GmbH
EvoLogics GmbH - Home.htm


Stingray from Prospective Concepts AG. Small Swiss firm Prospective Concepts AG here already more than 5 years works under orders of German industrial giant Festo above new technologies of application of a pneumatic in the industry. To one of its last development became a hybrid of the plane with airship Stingray. The flying vihicle represents the plane of type "a flying wing ". And the wing it is filled by easy gas and provides due to aerostatic lifting force rise of a quarter of useful loading. As a result Stingray flies up and sits down with small start and run



In flight the Swiss hybrid of the plane with a airship


Experimental researches flapping thruster for a airship balloon.
The student's research project
Authors: Ivan Ruchki, Evgenie Zhuravlyov, Artem Kravchenko.
School № 1273 ЮЗАО, 10 class, Moscow.
Theme of work:
Thruster for a airship
The supervisor of studies: Ustyugina Galina Pavlovna, the teacher of physics.


Thruster for a airship. Research work.

Extract energy from an environment and an atmosphere for airships.

Airships move in an atmosphere, in the environment in which there is a huge quantity of energy:
- Thermal;
- Potential energy of pressure of an atmosphere;
- A kinetic wind power;
-, etc.
For today for provision of energy thruster a airship the solar energy of the solar batteries located on a airship is used only.


Airship and Submersible craft based on inventions and designs from Nikola Tesla and Viktor Schauberger.
Frank Germano (President of Global Energy Technologies, Inc.).

If energy of an atmosphere (thermal or energy of pressure of air) airships will successfully execute huge quantity of transport transportations will be used. It will be супер break in transport!

Conclusions

1. The existing transport means - automobile, railway, sea transport, planes, helicopters and air-cushion vehicles – have a whole range of serious drawbacks:

- these transport means, the construction and maintenance of highways and railway roads, airfields and sea ports are extremely expensive;
- high fuel consumption;
- these transport means are environmentally harmful – technical installations occupy too much land, forests, etc.; oil spills occur, etc. ;
- with some minor exceptions, these transport means do not guarantee transitional delivery from the producer to the customer (there are a lot of cargo transfers and stocking);
- transportation of bulky and heavy cargo is impossible;
- high transport costs;
- there is no possibility to set up remotely operated transport (unmanned);
- further expansion in the number of traditional transport means leads to global transport crisis (highways in large cities are already overtrafficked) .

2. It is vital to develop new transport means lacking at least part of disadvantages listed above.

3. Airships can be such transport means, as they have the following advantages:

- transportation costs are considerably lower in comparison with the existing transport means;
- there is no need of highways;
- they can deliver goods directly from the producer to the customer without any cargo transfer;
- ecological safety.
4. Still, so far airships have not become a mass transport means. There

- low speed;
- special mooring installations and large hangars are needed;
- low manoeuvrability;
- intense lateral wind effect;
- large size and weight.
5. For several decades attempts have been to make airships a mass transport means.

All these attempts have failed because of the drawbacks listed in 4. They have tried to solve the problem through the use of other airships forms instead of cigar-like: cetaecean, airship-plane, wing-formeds, airships with oscillating thrusters.
The most promising is a wing- formed airship, Its advantages are as follows:
- smaller size and weight;
- lower lateral wind effect;
- there is no need of special mooring installations (still, a short airstrip is necessary).
Airships with oscillating wing thrusters are not highly developed and the companies do not consider them promising.

6. The existing airships projects will not remove their disadvantages in any radical way.

Without any doubt, the today’s boom will yield no results and only few airships will be produced.

7. It should be mentioned that only wing-formed airships using the wave flow effect (eradicating aerodynamic drag of the aircraft) can successfully enter the market.

They will have the following vital advantages:
- they are tenfold energy efficient in comparison with traditional transport means (and even with common airships);
- there is no need of mooring facilities and airstrips;
- extremely manoeuvrable, including while hovering and taking off;
- they are immune to side wind;
- a wide range of sizes – from mini-size to 1000 t lifting capacity;
- they can be used for the setting-up of both local and global remotely-operated transport networks.
8. Considering the extreme urgency of the development of airships using the wave flow effect, it is vital to take the following steps:

- to initiate scientific research and experimental development works;
- to develop a remotely operated airship with 1-2 kg flight weight (task: tests, demonstration of a new type airship possibilities, serial production of airships for the monitoring of oil and gas fields, oil and gas pipe-lines, power supply lines, etc.);
- to develop and 1, 10, 100 1nd 1 000 t airships and to launch their serial production;
- to set up companies developing and producing airships of various sizes;
- to set up companies specialized in cargo and passengers transporting with the use of airships.

An airship with a thruster complex of an oscillating type will have the following aerodynamic advantages in comparison with the existing models of airships:

1. The value of thrust (and, consequently, efficiency factor) will be higher in comparison with propellers.
2. Manifold reduction of aerodynamic drag of the airship shell for airships with wings or of a similar form.
3. Higher lift in comparison with airships with propeller engines.
4. Oscillating-type thrusters will perform functions of thrusters, rudders and generators of wave flow-around for airships shells.
5. The improvement of landing, take-off and manoeuvring capability, especially for low speed, as well of on-the-spot manoeuvrability.
Moreover, it is possible to extract energy for engine form heat and potential energy of atmosphere pressure (for this purpose, a special program has been developed).


Airships of this type will have the following advantages:
-a lower capacity engine;
-a lower weight of an engine;
-low fuel consumption;
-lower weight with the same payload weight;
-better manoeuvrability;
-smaller size with the same payload;
-no mooring facilities;
-parking without hangars;
-lower cost;
-lower cost of payload delivery;
-a flying airship with an oscillating thruster looks by far more aesthetic than a airship with propellers.

On the basis of many scientists’ research and our own findings, we have the following knowledge and proof:

Our research of an oscillating thruster



There exist non-linear modes of the wing oscillations, when swept area is much bigger in comparison with stationary oscillation modes. This effect can produce considerably higher thrust.
At the oscillating wing thruster, optimum modes can be easily changed at varying flight speed.
A propeller thruster is characterized by non-optimum angles of attack at varying flight speed. Even propeller thrusters only partially solve this problem. With an oscillating wing, it is easy to adjust optimal angles of attack and oscillation law by means of remote control. This will result in higher thrust and thruster efficiency.
An oscillating wing thruster will simultaneously perform the functions of a thruster.
At the existing airships, this function is performed by common rudders. In our project, oscillating wings of a thruster will be used as rudders. The effect will be most impressive:
It will be possible to effectively control such airships at low speed, including manoeuvring in place, on takeoff and descent.
There is no need of special rudders.
Production simplicity and low cost in comparison with propellers
The thruster wing is extremely simple to produce (a symmetrical profile with the same cord along the full span).



The improvement of airships maneouvrability, especially at low and zero velocities


This effect is obtained with the use of an oscillation-type thruster and of wave flow of the airship shell.
The propulsion unit configuration and the system changing the engine thrust vector, guarantee excellent control near the ground, as well as fair accuracy of maneouvring and landing. Aerodrome air strips and mooring facilities are not needed.


Control systems of an oscillating type thruster complex.



We have developed several control systems:


A hand control system for thruster characteristics (oscillation frequencies and amplitude) adjusting.


An automatic system for finding optimal thruster characteristics (the first model).


An automatic system for finding optimal thruster characteristics (the second model).

Our research of energy extraction from environment



We have carried out comprehensive research of the extraction of heat and potential pressure energy from atmosphere.

Low potential energy sources.

Extraction of Low-Potential Energy from Environment. The Solution to Energy and Ecological Problems. / "World Affairs", Spring 2006 vol. 10, No 1, pp.166-183.
It is only a wing-formed airship using the wave flow effect (this effect annihilates aerodynamic drag) that is able to meet competition in the vast market.
Such a airship will have the following decided advantages:
- it is tenfold more energy effective than traditional transport means (even in comparison with common airships);
- no mooring facilities and airstrips are needed
- it is extremely manoeuvring, including while hovering and taking-off;
- it is immune to side wind;
- its sizes can vary from the smallest to 1000 bearing capacity;
- it can serve a transport means for both local and global remotely-controlled transport systems.
Considering the extreme urgency of the development of airships using the wave flow effect, the following steps should be taken as soon as possible:
- to initiate scientific research and design and experimental activities;
- to develop a remotely-operated airship with 1-2 kg flight weight (aim: tests, the demonstration of characteristics of a new type airship? Serial production for the monitoring of oil and gas fields and pipes, transmission lines, etc.);
- to develop and launch the serial production of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 tons airships;
- to set up companies that will be developing and producing airships of various sizes;
- to set up companies for goods and passengers transporting with the use of airships.

Our proposals


We are looking for an investor for the development of super effective airships of a new type.
We can develop and produce first operating models of airships of various purposes. Now we do not have any operating models. But it should be noted that we have impressive theoretical, experimental and practical experience of the development and production of operating models of various devices using oscillations.


We are sure that airships have the prospects to become an ideal transport means in the XXI century:
They can deliver oversized cargo, like ships; they can fly to great distance and do not depend on roads, like planes; they can take off and land without aerodromes, like helicopters.



Transport of freight

Transport of freight to near and long distances.
A network of international and national computerized systems of container service.

Some English and Russian developers have considered the possibility to include airships into the international and national computerized systems of container service. In order to provide maximum efficiency of airships as transport means, the British engineers proposed to set up a single air transport system. This system should connect major industrial centers all over the world.
airships of our type can solve this task most effectively.

Liquefied gas transportation

airships can transport liquefied gas from gas recovery enterprises directly to European customers (without any interstate gas pipelines).

On the use of airships in Russian gas industry:

Now the problem of liquefied gas transportation with the use of airships has become rather urgent due to the following reasons:
  • liquefied gas transportation with the use of a cigar-like airship is four times less expensive than its transportation through pipelines;
  • there is no need of many kilometers of extremely expensive pipelines (with a lot of pumping facilities, preventive maintenance and operating staff);
  • now large land areas are amortized, forests are cut over and the environment is damaged;
  • political and economic dependence of gas supplying companies and countries on countries through whose territory gas has to be transported;
  • there is a lot of distant areas where pipe laying is economically inadvisable.
We propose to develop wing-formed airships with oscillating thrusters that would solve all the problems of gas transportation.

The airships we propose can reduce the liquefied gas transportation costs over 15 times (not 4 times, as previously offered projects).


The development of airships for liquefied gas transportation should be divided into several stages:

1. The development of remotely-operated airships with 1-2 kg flight weight. Task:
- to test optimal modes of aerodynamic drag reduction with the use of the wave flow effect and manoeuvring modes;
- to launch a mass production of these airships for the monitoring of oil and gas fields and pipelines, transmission lines, and for many other purposes.
2. To develop a airship with wave flow with 10 tons liquefied gas payload. .
3. To develop a airship with wave flow with 100 tons liquefied gas payload.
4. To develop a airship with wave flow with 1000 tons liquefied gas payload.

It is advisable to include these airships into national and international computerized transport systems and to set up a single transport network.
Our other research findings can be used for gas liquefying (see our web-site):
Gas liquefying with the use of vortex-oscillation effect
A plant for natural gas liquefaction
Liberated energy can be used for the setting-up of local energy plants that will not use any fuel.









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Опубликовано на: 2004-08-05 (21343 Прочтено)

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