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Ген.д-р, к.т.н.,
Евгений Дмитриевич Сорокодум


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Hidropower station with a oscillating cylindrical body





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1. Relevancy of hydroelectric power station with oscillating cylinders


Nowadays by solving of energy problems the people stake on traditional renewable energy sources: using of wind, solar, stream and sea waves energy etc. There’re developed a number of various wind-electric plants, hydroelectric power stations that use a stream and wave energy, solar electric plants, biofuel etc. But the developed models don’t obtain a wide circulation because of a number of essential disadvantages:
1. High costs of power stations and energy.
2. Need of dike construction and other complicated installations.
3. Negative influence on environment.
4. Complicated construction and running.
5. Lengthy and time-taking process of power station construction.
In this connection all countries look for more economical and easy-constructed power stations. But this searching process doesn’t bring any positive results till today.
That’s why it is important to develop new types of renewable energy sources, which don’t posses mentioned disadvantages.
One of these types can be hydroelectric power stations which extract stream energy with oscillating cylinders (kinetic energy of streams). The economical calculation is showed in chapter 5, 6, see below. This project is made for development and adaptation of hydroelectric power stations of such type.
These hydroelectric power stations are damless and can be installed on big and smalls rivers, in the near shore-areas of sees with stream velocity of 0.5 – 3 m/sec and more.

2. Energy extraction principle of steams based on oscillating cylinder.


A known fact is that by flow-around of cylinder occurs a vortex path – two whirls that rise and lift off not at the same time. As result occurs an alternating force that act on cylinder across to stream.

If cylinder is installed on movable anchor, this force can bring the cylinder into oscillating motion. If the system of mechanical energy take off will be organized in the right way, this mechanical energy can be transformed into electrical power. It will be an energy source.

3. Analogies


The traditional wind- hydro power plants based on rotating blades have a number of disadvantages, which prevent their wide occurrence (high cost, large-sized, low efficiency, complicated construction, need of dikes etc.). Nowadays starts a development of first models of wind- and hydro power plants with oscillating work elements (flies, cylinders, plates etc.)
The power stations with oscillating wings or cylinders posses the following advantages compared to traditional models:
- in the process of energy outfeed is involved the all wing or cylinder surface (the blade surface is unequal involved)
- Damless construction of hydro power plants.
- Simple controlling and conditioning with microprocessor controlling system, optimal operation of power stations in all stream velocity range.
- Simple construction of downstream and –wind orientation.
- Lower high, flexible to horizontal earth surface or river bottom.
- High safety.
- Possibility of modular construction and packaged installation.
Power stationswith oscillating cylinders (or wires) have following advantages:
- No need of angular variation (compared to wing).
- Simple and low-cost construction.
- Such power station has a lower efficiency than bladed power stations or stations with oscillating wings. But because of their simple construction and possibility of large power extraction, they can have generating capacity costs and energy cost much lower than by traditional energy sources and hydro power plants. This is a main factor for average consumer.
That’s why a number of laboratories abroad start research and development of power station for stream energy extraction with oscillating cylinders.
Australian company BioPower Systems develops underwater power plants, which extract underwater stream energy with oscillating cylinders and other forms.


http://www.biopowersystems.com/ The work is nowadays at the development stage.

Marine Renewable Energy Lab in USA undertook a longstanding study of stream energy extraction with oscillating cylinders.
Website: http://www.energy.umich.edu/res/center.html




American company Vortex Hydro Energy developed a hydro power plant with oscillating cylinders



In August 2010 was a launching of the first hydro power plant with oscillating cylinders. After testing of this hydro power plant the company Vortex Hydro Energy plans to construct such power stations on a number of the river in USA. By estimate of Vortex Hydro Energy the energy cost will be much lower compared to various types of power stations (see chapter 5)

http://www.vortexhydroenergy.com/


Norwegian the Marine Cybernetics Laboratory at NTNU also makes research of stream energy extraction with oscillating cylinder.


Website: http://www.ntnu.no/imt/lab/kybernetikk

David Labrecque and a team of University of Maine students (Eugene Katsman, Dan Wheeler, Nate Laspina, Eric Lovejoy, Ben Commeau and others) have developed a revolutionary, low-cost, high efficiency, vortex-driven water turbine. The energy system consists of a wing that “swims” through water like a fish following a figure-eight trajectory. Experiments show 30% efficiency at converting the energy in the water to a pumping motion. This is comparable with traditional turbines, yet hydroflexors have several advantages: They are low-cost, the mechanical systems are on the surface where they can be easily serviced and they are environmentally friendly. The system can be used in streams, rivers and tidal flows.
Utilizing vortices to propel a wing along a figure-eight trajectory is a new approach. The Flexor team encourages and will provide support to researchers who want to study this phenomenon and publish their findings. They are also looking for established manufacturers interested in manufacturing and marketing products that utilize this new patent-pending technology. The Flexor team can provide scientific and technical assistance to research and engineer groups.

http://flexorenergy.com/


4. Our results (KNOW HOW)

For many decades we made theoretical and practical research of oscillating bodies, swimming and flying animals in water and air. In this connection we reach following results:
1. We undertook many rounds of experimental study of streams and forces, which rise by cylinder oscillations in wide frequency and amplitude range. We found out the never-before-seen principles in the science.


Fig.1. Whirl cinematic during oscillating period.

2. We found out the modes, which we can use due to whirl structure near oscillating cylinder for expansion of effective hydraulic square (cross flow area, from which kinetic energy is extracted) in many times, see figure 2.

Fig 2. Usual hydraulic disk area of oscillating cylinder and hydraulic square expanded by using of special oscillating modes and whirl structure (external boundary of flow on the picture).

It will cause increasing of energy extraction by the same oscillating amplitudes. In the same time a power load on hydraulic square unit will be reduced. As result an energy efficiency of incoming flow will be higher. It can also cause double increasing of extracted energy by the same oscillation amplitudes.

3. We developed a method and mechanism for kinetic energy extracting of streams with special configuration of oscillating body and oscillation low (Know-How).
4. We found out the modes, when associated elasticity occurs (elasticity caused by whirl structure of the fluid near oscillating cylinder). Using of this elasticity we can neutralize inertial forces of cylinder mass and associated water mass.
5. We developed construction principles of special transmitting elements for coordination of dynamic and kinetic flow characteristics with load (energy consumer). It will cause a coordination of energy transfer from energy source to generator (otherwise energy will get back to the flow) and increasing of energy transfer coefficient from flow to load.
6. Using of the special distribution of elastic and mass characteristics of cylinder for coordination of external energy source with input characteristics of mechanic electric transducer. Due to this process we increase a flow energy take-off.
7. Using of more effective cylinder oscillation principles. Energy extraction with lift powers and frictional forces, which act on cylinder at the same time. It will cause an increasing of a flow energy extraction.
8. Reducing of hydrodynamic and aerodynamic resistance with wave flow-around elements and oscillations.
9. Using of adaptive microprocessor controlling system will cause a maximal output power by different stream velocities.
10. Using of physical effects for extraction of additional kinetic energy from latent heat energy and potential pressure energy of water column or atmosphere.
11. We developed a research methodology of kinematical, dynamical and energetical characteristics of oscillating cylinder as system.
12. We developed a method and analysis program for hydro power plant as the one oscillating system.
13. We developed a technique of conversion of mechanical into electrical energy.
14. We started a development of wind hydro generators theory with oscillating cylinder.
15. Base of experimental research results of cylinder oscillation in nonlinear oscillation mode.
16. Base of patents for wind hydro generators with oscillating work elements (wings, cylinders, plates etc.) for 80 years.

5. Economical advantages of hydro power plants with oscillating cylinder compared to present power stations.


Marine Renewable Energy Lab Michigan University under the direction of Michael Bernitsas defined the general economic results in area of renewable and nonrenewable energy (see table 1 and 2).


Table 1. Cost of generating capacity and energy costs by different energy sources.

Power generation technology

Price
(Dollar USA/kW)

Cost of installation
(Dollar USA/kW)

Cost of fuel
(Dollar USA/kW*h)

Suitability
(%)

Energy cost
(Dollar USA/kW*h)

Fine grained coal





0.04

High quality coal





0.041

Coal biomass





0.046

Coal





0.06

Synthetic gas mixtures





0.052

Solid fuel





0.046

Usual hydroelectric power stations

6800 - 8700





Atomic energy industry





0.062

Natural gas

1200

100

0.018

90

0.187

Wind energy

1200

156

0

25

0.069

Solar energy

6000

125

0

20

0.489

Hydrogen energy





0.069

Biogas





0.066

Anaerobic ynthesis





0.071

Hydroelectric power stations with oscillating cylinders, developed in USA Vortex Hydro Energy

3000

71

0

90

0.055

Hydroelectric power stations with oscillating cylinders, developed by Sorokodum Е.D.

500

15

0


0.01

Estimated costs made in USA (table 1) show that the hydro power plants with oscillating cylinders can have lower energy costs than by firing (except for coal), biogas and other types of renewable energy sources.
This estimation is made in the laboratory that developed power stations for several years and launched 2010 the first power plant. According to Marine Renewable Energy Lab the technical solutions and working principles of such mechanisms are the most progressive and advanced in the area of renewable and alternative energy. According to experts dates of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering Michigan University the mechanisms based on kinetic energy extraction principles with oscillating cylinder will enter market 2010-2015 on an industrial scale.

6. Economical advantages of our hydro power plant compared to developed model of Vortex Hydro Energy USA


Company Vortex Hydro Energy reached energy efficiency values of 0.07 with account of mechanical-electrical transducer 0.045.
Using of out results (see chapter 4) and KNOW-HOW we can improve the technical and economical values of hydro power plants developed by Vortex Hydro Energy (see table 1 and 2).We can reach an energy efficiency of 0.45 and with account of mechanical-electrical transducer 0.045.
Our proposed mechanism can have 6.4 times more stream energy than by Vortex Hydro Energy. By the same stream velocities, cylinder diameters and length we will need for our hydro power plant 6 times less cylinders for getting the same power. It will reduce price, energy costs, size and weight in 6 times. The following table 2 shows the values of Vortex Hydro Energy and our results.

Table 2. Number and geometrical dimensions of cylinder by hydro power plants of different power (including our calculated values)

Type of hydro power plant

Power
(МW)

Diameter of oscillating cylinder
(m)

Length of cylinder
(m)

Height of the plant
(m)

Cylinder swept area
(m2)

Number of oscillating cylinders

Weight of the plant
(tonne)

USA Vortex Hydro Energy

Sorokodum

USA
Vortex Hydro Energy

Sorokodum

Giga

1000

2

40

60

1497

32800

102

1775

276

Mega

100

2

40

30

258.9

6500

1011

159

24.7

Large

10

1

20

15

14.5

1314

204

11.4

1.77

Medium

1

0.5

10

15

2.4

526

82

1.1

0.171

Small

0.1

0.2

4

5

0.92

328

51

0.1

0.016

Micro

0.05

0.1

2

5

0.45

657

102

0.05

0.01


0.005

0.1

2




10



Calculated values for stream velocities of 2 m/sec.
Table 3. Price for hydro power plant development of 1 MW and energy costs.


Developer

Project cost,
$ millions

Price for series-produced hydro power plants
$/kW

Price for series-produced hydro power plants
Millons $

Energy costs
$/kW·h

1

New constructed usual hydro power plant

6,8-8,7

6800 - 8700

6,8-8,7

0,046 and more

2

Hydro power plant with oscillating cylinders in USA Vortex Hydro Energy

20

3000

3

0,055

3

Our developed model of hydro power plant with oscillating cylinders (project)

2

500

0.5

0,01


Table 3 shows, that based on our results and KNOW-HOW we can develop a hydro power plant with oscillating cylinders, which cost of kW*h will be much lower than traditional renewable energy sources and hydro power plant by Vortex Hydro Energy .
Tables 1, 2 and 3 shows, that due to our proposal and KNOW-HOW it is possible to construct a hydro power station with price of 500 US Dollar/kW and energy costs of 0.01 US Dollar/kW*h. It is the lowest prices compared to traditional power stations and power stations based on renewable energy.


7. Our proposals

We can make research and developmental work on creation of the first samples of new highly effective technics (on the basis of our theoretical and experimental researches). We search for investors and partners for creation of the first samples of this new technics.

Development of damless hydro power plant of new type, which power cost of energy extraction than by other energy sources (solar, wind, hydro, diesel fuel energy etc.).
Price of 500 $/kW, energy costs 0.3 Ruble/kW*h.
Based on this work we plan to develop a line of hydro power plants of 500 W-100 МW and supply an energy to more consumers.
The proposed plants, which extract kinetic energy with oscillating cylinders based on sea or river streams can be constructed of two types: floating or bottom plants.


1. Bottom hydro power plant Kinetic energy of undercurrents brings the cylinder into oscillating motion and gives him a part of own energy. Cylinder is fixed at elastic mounting. By oscillation the cylinder brings the stocks of hydro cylinders into oscillating motion. The moving stocks cause oscillations of oil. The oscillating motion of oil is straightened with special rectifier and is delivered to hydraulic oil motor. Hydraulic oil motor rotates a generator shaft, which produce electric energy. The station configuration is showed at figure 4.


2. Floating hydro power plant


Figure 5. Prototype model of floating hydro power plant (made by designer Anna Edalova,e-mail: anna_edalova@mail.ru).
The plant is fixed by anchors or at the shore.



8. According to your order we can make following research and engineering work:


1. Analysis of your developed hydro power plant with oscillating elements (cylinder, wing and other forms) and give the development points for improvement of its characteristics.
2. Development of data processing program by stream energy extraction with oscillating cylinder or elastic plate.
3. Processing of experimental data by stream energy extraction with oscillating cylinder or elastic plate.
4. Calculation of geometrical, kinematical, dynamical characteristics of wind-hydro-generator with oscillating cylinder, wing or elastic plate.
5. Calculation and engineering of transmitting elements, for energy transmission and coordination from oscillating cylinder or elastic plate to electro generator.
6. Review of wind-hydro-generators with oscillating wing, cylinder and elastic plate.
7. Map drafting of aerodynamic characteristics of oscillating cylinder (theoretical).
8. Map drafting of hydro dynamical characteristics of oscillating cylinder or elastic plate (based on experimental values)
9. Review of patents of wind-hydro-generators with oscillating wing, cylinder or elastic plate (patent copy).


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Hydro power stations with oscillating cylinders
 















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